The need for a specialized institution for medical research to address health problems of national concern was recognized in the early 1950's. Plans were subsequently drawn and a presidential decree was issued in 1957 for the establishment of the Medical Institute to be located in Alexandria. This institute was later attached to the National Research Center and the Ministry of Scientific Research.Since its establishment it has been housed in the same building it occupies today at 165, Horreya Avenue, Hadara, Alexandria .The laboratories of the institute were prepared and work in July 1963 as Medical Research Institute.

Since its establishment the objectives of the Medical Research Institute were identified as Clinical and basic research in different fields of medicine , Diagnosis and treatment of special cases including performing difficult major operations , Training of physicians in modern and novel methods of diagnosis and treatment, and introducing such methods to other hospitals and treatment centers and Issuing periodical pamphlets on the latest international medical and scientific achievements and the results of the research.