The department was established in 1974 as an independent entity in recognition of the growth and importance of the science of immunology to medicine and to the immunopathogenesis, diagnosis and treatment of diseases. It is the first and only Department of immunology in the country devoted specifically to the study of the immune system. The department offers several postgraduate programs that leads to diploma, master of science and doctorate degrees in the field. Recently, the department was accredited to to give the necessary studies and training to physicians willing to be specialized in allergy Hence, the name of the department was changed to immunology and allergy in 2008.

The laboratories of Immunology Department are comprised of two sets one located in the extension of the medical research Institute and is located in Smouha district of Alexandria and is the research laboratories while, the second one is located in the mother institute and is the diagnostic immunology laboratory.